|Age of second-language acquisition and perception of speech in noise|
|Journal||Journal of speech, language, and hearing research (jslhr)|
|Volume and page||Vol. 40 ; june 1997, hlm: 686–693|
|Writter||Lynn hansberry mayo
|Date||27th may, 2017|
|Purpose of research||To determine if the listeners identified in florentine’s study are typical of non-native listeners and if age of second-language acquisition influences speech perception in noise. Native mexican-spanish-speakers who learned american-english before age 6 or after age 14 were compared with a group of native american-english speakers.|
|Subject of research||1. The monolingual group (mon) consisted of 9 listeners who learned english from birth and ranged in age from 20 to 29 years old.
2. The bilingual-since-infancy group (bsi) included 3 listeners who could not determine which language they learned first, they were between 21 and 35 years old
3. The bilingual-since-toddler group (bst) included 9 listeners who learned english as a second language before the age of 6. They were between 22 and 37 years old and spoke english for an average of 24 years (range: 17–32 years).
4. The bilingual-post-puberty (bpp) group consisted of 9 listeners who learned english after the age of 14. They were between 21 and 49 years old and spoke english for an average of 9.4 years (range: 3– 26 years).
all listeners were university students and reported using english for daily communication.
|Data source||The research uses several ways :
1. Spin test
3. Data analysis
|Method of research||The research use two methods:
1. Quantitative component
2. Qualitative method
|Stage of result||The research is divided into several stages :
1. Preparing for make a group to each listener
2. Setting up the matter of pretest and posttest for get the result on listener that learning a second language at an early age is important for the ability to understand it in noisy situations.
|Result of research||1. Highly proficient non-native listeners who learned
English after puberty perform worse in noise than listeners
Who learned the language as infants or toddlers,
Although all listeners performed with native-like proficiency
(better than 96% correct) in the quiet.
2. The slopes of the psychometric functions for early
Bilinguals indicate that they can take better advantage
Of context than listeners who acquired their second language
3. Although early bilinguals demonstrate significantly
Better speech-discrimination-in-noise skills than listeners
Who learned the language after puberty, they may
Not function at the same level as monolinguals, who demonstrate
Higher ntls and steeper psychometric functions.
Although early second-language acquisition is advantageous
For listening in noise, interference from a first language
May reduce even an early-bilingual listener’s ability
To perceive second-language speech in noise.
|Strength ofresearch||Using many theories of second-language acquisition suggest that age of acquisition , which it is supporting this study.|
|Weakness ofresearch||1. Quantitative component
Detail about the pretest and posttestwas not included, so it does not convince the reader that strategy was carried out or not.
2. Using a few method, it make difficult for researcher to get the result of this research.
|Conclusion||1. This research is still in need of repair, so it needs for criticism and suggestions.
2. This research is interesting to do in the next research for who want learn more about Age of second-language acquisition and perception of speech in noise.